The Carolina Road
by Eugene Scheel
A Waterford historian and mapmaker.
The Journey Through Hallowed Ground along the Carolina Road »
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The Carolina Road (Now Route 15) in Loudoun County Virginia
In Colonial Loudoun and Fauquier
counties, the most important travelway was the main north-to-south
road. This bed of dirt, no more than 10 feet wide, was called
the Carolina Road, for its southern terminus was an Indian trading
post on Occaneechie Island in the Roanoke River, on the Virginia-Carolina'
The road was favored by Colonists – as it had been favored
by their predecessors, the Algonquin and Iroquois Indians –
because of numerous springs along its route, milder temperatures
east of the mountains and relatively safe fords across major
rivers and streams.
In Loudoun and Prince William counties, the Carolina Road
follows or parallels U.S. Route 15, the James Monroe and James
Madison highway. In Fauquier, it follows several secondary
roads east of Routes 15-29.
One can still drive on 55 of the road's 65 miles through the
three counties, across a region described by Scenic America,
an environmental advocacy group, as "a small piece of
the American landscape permeated with the history and culture
of the American nation." The group calls a trip along
this corridor “The
Journey Through Hallowed Ground."
In Colonial times, the journey began in spring, when thawed
ground had dried a bit, rivers and streams had lowered and
the road had been "grubbed up" – the annoying growth
cut and the roadbed smoothed, a task mandated by the county
court and performed by residents along the road.
'The road's northern terminus was Frederick, Md., an important
Colonial town with feeder roads from Pennsylvania. Thomas Scharf,
Western Maryland's premier chronicler, picked 1740 as the date
for the road's beginnings.
Writing in 1882, he noted: “The goods sent from Frederick
were boots and shoes, saddles and harness, woolen goods, linen
and woolen and flax seed threads. They were carried on pack
horses and were exchanged [in Virginia and North Carolina]
for cotton, indigo, and money." The carriers, according
to Scharf, were "thrifty Germans."
In 1742, the Virginia General Assembly describes the travelers
as “drivers vagrant people peddling and selling horses;
and either buy or steal a great number of cattle which in their
return they drive through the frontier counties; and often
take away with them the cattle of the inhabitants under pretence
that they cannot separate them from their own droves."
Indeed, as early as 1747, a Fauquier land grant refers to
the Carolina Road as "Rogues Road," a name that appears
in Fauquier and Loudoun deeds throughout the early 19OOs. A
few miles north of Leesburg, on old Montresor farm, a narrow
wooded stream valley still bears the name Rogues' Hollow, for
tradition states that this geographic depression was the lair
for thieves about to plunder travelers.
Writings of the journeymen themselves abound in Picaresque
color. Elkanah Watson, a Continental Army courier, noted in
1777 that after crossing the Potomac River at "Newland's
[Noland's] Ferry," which linked the Maryland and Loudoun
stretches of the Carolina Road, he was served dinner "by
half-naked savages" at the home of Josiah Clapham, Loudoun's
General Assembly representative.
The repast led Watson to describe the county as "a wilderness
region infested by a semi-barbarian population."
Watson was particularly concerned, for sewn into his clothes
was $50,000 in paper currency (more than $1 million today),
the payroll for Continental troops in the South.
Two years later, Lt. Thomas Anburey, of Gen. John Burgoyne's
British and Hessian armies, who had been captured at the Battle
of Saratoga, reached Noland's Ferry on the forced January trek
to a prisoner of war camp near Charlottesville.
He wrote: "We crossed the Potowmack River with imminent
danger as the' current was very rapid. The scowe at one time
was quite fastened in the ice. On our entering Virginia the
roads were exceedingly bad from the late fall of snow which
was encrusted, but not sufficiently to bear the weight of a
man, so we were continually sinking up to our knees and culling
our shins and ancles."
Baroness Fredericka von Massow also was captured but journeyed
by wagon with her children and servants on horseback, who rode
ahead to clear the way. Passing through Loudoun south of Leesburg,
she remarked on the country's being "picturesque" but "by
reason of its wildness, inspired us with terror. Often we were
in danger of our lives while going along these break-neck roads."
Moravian Bishop John Frederick Reichel chose nay as his travel
month along the Carolina Road when he and his party set out
from Bethlehem, Pa., to Salem, N.C., in 1780.
At Noland's Ferry, his diary records that the group was robbed,
adding that "this neighborhood is far-famed for robbery
When they stopped that evening, two miles north of Leesburg
by Big Spring, some of their horses strayed, and as they were
rounding them up, their camp was again plundered, "by
negroes who had a free evening and were roaming everywhere."
Reichel's diary also gives the first descriptions of the Carolina
Road in lower Fauquier – "hilly, rough and marshy," adding
that at the "Rappihannik" River, "there is neither
bridge nor ferry." On the party's return trip that October,
lower Fauquier's route is referred to as "a very bad stony
road, especially in the place known as Devil's Race Ground,
where we saw rock enough".
Johann David Schoepf, a German surgeon, wrote kinder words
of the Carolina Road in lower Fauquier in 1783, describing
it as "a great broad road" bordered by "so much
waste or new cleared land." He added that the owners have "great
and extensive tracts of which they will sell none so as to
leave their families the more. All of them let land in parcels
. . . worked and settled by tenants.”
Schoepf also leaves us the first description of a tavern along
the road. Taverns were then called ordinaries, from the French
word ordinnire, referring to their fixed-price meals.
An unnamed Leesburg tavern was "easily identified by
the great number of miscellaneous papers and advertisements
with which the walls and doors are plaistered. . . In this
way the traveler is afforded a many sided entertainment and
can inform himself as to where the taxes are heavy, where wives
have run away, horses have been stolen, or the new Doctor has
settled. . . .
“These ordinaries are commodious enough when there are not
too many guests, but coffee, ham and eggs are commonly the
sole entertainment. Ham is the great delicacy to the Virginian."
As horseback travel was reckoned at 4 mph, an ordinary's location
was gauged to travel times between meals. There were usually
two or three ordinaries in Leesburg, and moving south, William
West's a mile south of today's Gilbert's Comer, the Red House
at Haymarket, then George Neavill's at Auburn and Landon Carter's
at Norman's Ford on the Rappahannock River.
Leesburg, the one major town along the Carolina Road, was
pictured in less-than-alluring words. In 1774, diarist Nicholas
Cresswell noted that it was "very indifferently built" and
had "few inhabitants and little trade."
In 1781, Capt. John Davis, of the Continental Army, made a
reference to "Leesburg, the appearance of which I was
very much disappointed in." And in 1783, Schoepf called
the town "a Place of few and insignificant wooden houses."
While Leesburg began to prosper as a
result of the wealthy farm country around it and because it was "very
advantageously situated," as Cresswell put it, the Carolina Road began to
lose importance after the rise of Washington, the new federal city, in the 1790s.
Improvements to the King's Highway, called the Post Road as
it was the major mail route between Boston, Washington and
Richmond, also beckoned north-south travelers farther east.
Bridges began to span the tidewater stretches of the Potomac
and Rappahannock, and by the 1850s, telegraph poles and wires
linking north and south lined the Post Road, soon to be called
Telegraph Road, today's U.S. Route 1.
In Loudoun, a new parallel travelway bypassed the Carolina
Road. A bridge built at Point of Rocks in 1850 proved safer
than Noland's Ferry, though the ferry continued operating unti1
1920. A new toll road, the present Route 15 was built in 1875
and straightened the route between Leesburg and today’s Gilbert’s
Corner at the present Route 50, although Route 15 south of
Gilbert's Corner was not cut through unti1 1941.
In Fauquier, the way south shifted west with completion of
the Warrenton-to-Alexandria Turnpike in 1825 and construction
of a turnpike from Warrenton to Waterloo, open by 1850. An
extension of the Orange & Alexandria Railroad through lower
Fauquier to today's Remington in 1852 bypassed Norman's Ford,
and the growth of Remington ended that ford's prominence.
Similar shifts of travel patterns through Virginia gave rise
to a mid-19th century prefix that now graces road signs and
historical markers: Old Carolina Road- "old" in history, "new" in
that its corridor still separates urban development on its
east from the rural Piedmont Virginia on the west.
Copyright © Eugene Scheel